Август 2019 — Заметка №2

Если вы слышали про теорию информации, интересуетесь анонимизацией и смотрели аниме Death Note, то вы получите большое удовольствие от этой подробной статьи про то, какие ошибки допустил Light и как их можно было бы избежать: https://www.gwern.net/Death-Note-Anonymity

Главная мысль: анонимность это сложно (и гордыня не помогает). Деанонимизировать человека проще, чем кажется.

Решение — рандомизация.

Randomization is the answer. Randomization and encryption scramble the correlations between input and output, and they would serve as well in Death Note as they do in cryptography & statistics in the real world, at the cost of some efficiency.

So to deal with Light’s first mistake, simply scheduling every death on the hour will not work because the wake-sleep cycle is still present. If he set up a list and wrote down n criminals for each hour to eliminate the peak-troughs rather than randomizing, could that still go wrong? Maybe: we don’t know what information might be left in the data which an L or Turing could decipher. I can speculate about one possibility—the allocation of each kind of criminal to each hour. If one were to draw up lists and go in order (hey, one doesn’t need randomization, right?), then the order might go ‘criminals in the morning newspaper, criminals on TV, criminals whose details were not immediately given but were available online, criminals from years ago, historical criminals etc’; if the morning-newspaper-criminals start at say 6 AM Japan time… And allocating evenly might be hard, since there’s naturally going to be shortfalls when there just aren’t many criminals that day or the newspapers aren’t publishing (holidays?) etc., so the shortfall periods will pinpoint what the Kira considers ‘end of the day’.

Также интересно про психотип:

First mistake, and a classic one of serial killers: delusions of grandeur and the desire to taunt, play with, and control their victims and demonstrate their power over the general population. From a literary perspective, this similarity is clearly not an accident, as we are meant to read Light as the Sociopath Hero archetype: his ultimate downfall is the consequence of his fatal personality flaw, hubris, particularly in the original sadistic sense. Light cannot help but self-sabotage like this.

(This is also deeply problematic from the point of carrying out Light’s theory of deterrence: to deter criminals and villains, it is not necessary for there to be a globally-known single supernatural killer, when it would be equally effective to arrange for all the killings to be done naturalistically by third parties/police/judiciary or used indirectly to crack cases. Arguably the deterrence would be more effective the more diffused it’s believed to be—since a single killer has a finite lifespan, finite knowledge, fallibility, and idiosyncratic preferences which reduce the threat and connection to criminality, while if all the deaths were ascribed to unusually effective police or detectives, this would be inferred as a general increase in all kinds of police competence, one which will not instantly disappear when one person gets bored or hit by a bus.)